There are twelve major river systems in India, out of which three major river systems, namely Ganga, Brahmaputra and Indus are shared with neighbouring countries i.e. Nepal, Bhutan,China, Bangladesh and Pakistan. These three river systems alone drain a total of 42 % of geographical area in India and contribute 60% to the total water regime in the country.
During XI Plan, the central sector scheme namely ‘River Management Activities and Works related to Border Areas’ was formulated by the Ministry of Water Resources after integrating smaller schemes having similar objectives of funding the activities related to Pancheshwar Multipurpose Project, survey / investigations & preparation of DPRs for, Sapta Kosi High Dam and Sun Kosi Storage cum Diversion Scheme, maintenance of flood protection works of Kosi, & Gandak rivers, extension of embankments on Lalbakeya , Kamla, Bagmati & Khando rivers, flood forecasting on rivers common to India and Nepal, hydrological observations on rivers originating from Bhutan, Joint observations on rivers common to Bangladesh and neighbouring countries, expenditure on activities of GFCC, grant-in-aid to Brahmaputra Board, schemes of Majuli Island in Assam, Debang project etc, flood protection/ anti-erosion and developmental works on common/ border rivers with Bangladesh (to be carried out by the State Governments of West Bengal & Tripura) , river protection works on border rivers flowing to Pakistan , provision for field Investigations of Naumure HE Project (Nepal) on river Rapti and pre-construction activities of Pancheshwar Multipurpose Project involving construction of approach road, project bridges, residential quarters and pre-construction surveys, on Indian side.
During XII plan, the administrative approval for central sector scheme namely ‘River Management Activities and Works related to Border Areas’ was issued on 23rd December, 2014 at a total cost of Rs. 740 crore to cover following major components: